Romeyn de Hooghe: Hieroglyphica — Symbols of Ancient People

by 5T1V on June 2, 2015

EGYPT-CHALDEAN-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 2 dealing with Egyption and Chaldean Hyroglyphics and symbols, This plate shows: A. Pilars of Seth. B. Pyramid. C. King, nimrod with the crown of the Chadeans. D. Chaldean high priest. E. Fire god. F. Wisdom, Philosophy. G. Wise men, Seres. H. The bull Amunx or the ox Apis. I. Laziness. K. Bestiality, brutality. L. Lazy owl. M. Cain, primitive stubborn.

Hieroglyphica, of, Merkbeelden der oude volkeren : namentlyk Egyptenaren, Chaldeeuwen, Feniciers, Joden, Grieken, Romeynen, enz.

Translation: Hyroglyphics or symbols of ancient people: namely Egyptians , Chaldeans , Phoenicians, Jews , Greeks, Romeynen , etc.

By Romeyn de Hooghe, edited by Arn. Henr. Westerhovius and published in Amsterdam by Joris van der Oude, 1735.

This is a scholarly iconology of classical mythology and Christian symbolism written and illustrated by de Hooghe. The work was published 25 years after the author’s death.
Ref: Landwehr 108. Cohen-De Ricci 897. Praz II 81. Graesse III 343

Artist and etcher, Romeyn de Hooghe (Dutch 1645-1708), was an important and prolific late Baroque engraver and caricaturist. De Hooghe was skilled as an etcher, draughtsman, painter, sculptor and medalist. He is best known for political caricatures of Louis XIV and propagandistic prints supporting William of Orange.

During his career, de Hooghe produced over 3500 prints. He also illustrated books, and his illustrations can be found in some of the most important texts of his period.

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ON ARCHIVE.ORG

TITLE ENGRAVING-ALCHEMIST-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Title engraving: ‘Mr. Romein de Hooghe van de Hieroglypen of Merkbeelden der Ouden This plate shows the temple of Serapis with many symbols including: A. Student studying symbols. B. Teacher, chemist, alchemist. C. Goddess Urania. D. Sculpture. E. Wisdom. F. Fabel. G. Terror. H. Chaldeans, Tuscans, Greeks, Romans. I. Pilars with water levels of the Nile. K. Religion, God-Service. L. Law. M. Astrology. N. Opressor holding the world on fire. O. Serapis of Ofiris. P. Amun, Ammon, Hammon.

DEDICATION PAGE-JOHAN HENDRIK OF WASSENAAR-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Dedication page to Johan Hendrik, count of Wassenaar. With coat of arms, heraldry engraved by Jan Wandelaar (1690-1759).

EGYPT-THEBE-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 1 dealing with Egyption Hyroglyphics and symbols This plate shows: A. Wise woman from Thebe. B. Hecate, Besa. C. Toth, Hermes or Manethon. D. Scientist, priest. E. Diana of Ephese. F. Pyramid. G. Gate, school, gathering place of scientists.

 

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SCIENCE-ICONOLOGY-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 3 dealing with iconology and symbols, This plate shows: A. The progress of science; B. Harpocrates, the silent student; C. A priest; D. an archeological obelisk; E. Godly exorcism; F. A statue of Hecate; G. Statue of the Egyptian Horus; H. Artificial austerity; I. Supplicate the oracle; K. Presenting the sacrifice; L. Statue of Mophta.

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CHRISTIAN ICONOLOGY-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 4 dealing with iconology and symbols. This plate shows: A. The eternal and all-seeing Eye; B. Terminus, time captured; C. Divine Wisdom; D. Divine Will; E. The first man and woman; F. Temptation by the Snake; G. Angel of consolation; H. Announcing the Gospel; I. The Lamb of God; K. The Fathers before and under the Law; L. The Virgin (supernatural religion).

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REDESTINATION-FATE-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 5 dealing with the symbolism of predestination and fate, This plate shows: A. A very old man (time personified); B. Eternal providence; C. Clotho; D. Lachesis; E. Atropos; F. The Diamond Axis of time; H. Jupiter Meragetes; I. Desire and procreation; K. The Almighty.

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DIVISION OF CHAOS-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 6 dealing with the symbolism of the Division of Chaos, This plate shows: A. Demogorgon; B. Eneph (the first God of the Egyptians); C. Saturn; D. Pan; E. Busiris (Phoenician God); F. Yunx (Egyptian God); G. Chaldean symbol of Chaos; H. Palmyrene fertility symbol; I. Juno; M. Bereschith.

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ZODIAC-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 7 dealing with the symbolism of Zodiac, This plate shows: A. the World Turtle; B. God atop the World Tree; C. the world sphere; D. Equinotcital line; E. Meridian; F. the Sun; G-K. Various signs of the Zodiac.

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PLANETS-ASTROLOGY-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 8 dealing with the movement of the planets. This plate shows: A. the sun; B. North Pole; C. the correlation of sun and time; D. East; E. South Pole; F. West.

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EARTH-CONTINENTS-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 9 with the symbolism of Heaven and Earth. This plate shows: A. Vesta/Ophta; B. Asia; C. Europe; D. Africa; E. America; F. the Prudent Spirit; G. Apis; H. Canopus; I. Mendes; K. Chenosiris; L. Amon.

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SOUL-ICONOLOGY-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 10 with the symbolism of Heaven and Earth. This plate shows: A. Luna/Diana/Hecate; B. Apis oracle; C. Phoenician Isis; D. Venus; E. Cupids; F. the power of water; G. Aesculapius; H. Hercules; I. Harpocrates; K. Symbolism op the Soul; L. ibid.; M. a fallen soul.

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GODS-ICONOLOGY-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 11 with the symbolism of Heaven and Earth. This plate shows: A. Ser/Osiris; B. Uranus; C. Horus fills the hands of Vesta; D. Saturn; E. Jupiter/Juno/Neptune/Pluto (Fire/Air/Water/Earth); F. Janus; G. Adadgartin (Chaldaean God of); H. God blesses His work.

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CONOLOGY-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 12 is titled: “Van de Loop van Hemel en Aarde” (Of the course of Heaven and Earth). This plate shows A. Earth; B. Moon (Diana); C. Mecury; D. Sun; E. Mars; F. Saturn; G-O. Enlightenment cosmology; P. Siam cosmology.

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CREATION-ADAM-EVE-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 13 with the symbolism of the Creation of Man. This plate shows: A.Dii consentes; B. Mankind; C. Pandora; D. Epimetheus; E. Man & Woman; F. the Word of God; H. Three Gorgon sisters; I. Divine pull; K. the Fall of Man.; M. Adam and Eve.

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STAGES OF RELIGION-MOZES-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 14 with the symbolism of the stages of religion. This plate shows the various stages of the church, with the appropriate persons/symbols, such as Mozes for the Church under law, David for the Church under Kings.

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CAIN-PASSIONS-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 15 shows the symbolism of the seed of Cain. This plate shows the violent rule of Cain, among with superstitions. Also shown is the God-fearing man and the Pure Spirit.

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AGES-FALL OF MAN-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 16 shows the four Ages and the Fall of Man. This plate shows A. the Golden Age; B. the Silver Age; C. the Copper Age; D. the Iron Age.

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DELUGE-ARK NOAH-MAN’S EVIL-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 17 shows the aftermath of the Deluge. This plate shows A. Prelapsarian perfection; B. Cain; C. Lamech; D. Noah’s Ark; E. a wolf (the corruption of man); F. Murder and pillaging; G. Titans; H. Virtue; I. Justice; K. Iris; L. Neptune.

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MAN’S ANCESTORS-ICONOLOGY-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 18 shows the ancestors before and after the Deluge. This plate shows A. Adam; B. Eva; C. Kain; D. Abel; E. Jubal; F. Tubalkain; G. Lamech; W. Moses, 10 commandments.[etc.].

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PATRIARCH-TABERNACLE-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 19 shows the Patriarchs’ rule, originating from a scarse work. Individual plates rarely offered. Print includes text pages describing this plate (in Dutch). This plate shows A. Personification of the Patriarchs; B. the victory of the Judges; C. relics of the victory of David; D. Solomon; E. Solomon’s temple; F. the Tabernacle on Mount Sinai; G. pillar of fire (signifying God’s might); H. pillar of cloud.

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PROPHECY-TABERNACLE-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 20 shows the prophecy and the fulfillment. This plate shows A. Genius of God’s people (a Canaan woman); B. David; C. the Seraphim showing Ezechiel the measurements of the Temple; D. Tabernacle; E. Chaldean rule; F. a statue of Osiris; G. a fiery dragon hanging from a lance; H. the tyranny of the Roman empire; I. the Pantheon; K. the fleeing bride; L. New Jerusalem.

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PRIEST-DIVINE PUNISHMENT-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 21 shows the suffering of God’s people. This plate shows A. the High Priest; B. the idol Dagon; C. a man chained to; D. an Assyrian column; E. a man with a Babylonian beard with hair like revolting fire; F. Jachin and Boaz (two copper columns raised by Solomon).

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PANTHEON-ZODIAC-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 22 shows the pantheon of Gods. This plate shows A. Adad; B. Thetys; C. Bellerophon; D. Jupiter Hammon; E. Upalla; F. Isis; G. Beladad; H. Zodiac; I. Saturn; K. Jupiter; L. Mars; M. Venus; N. Apollo; O. Luna; P. Mercury; Q. Chapziel; R. Nanael; S. Zadchiel; T. Michael; V. Zamael; W. Gabriel; X. Raphael; Y. Urgaman

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IDOLATRY-FALSE GODS-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 23 shows the progress of the Idols. This plate shows A. an unshaved Papist; B. seven stones; C. Venus on a square stone; D. the sun (a pointed obelisk); E. Earth; F. dawn-dancing; G. African shooting arrows to celebrate sunrise; H. a sacred mountain-top; I. the world egg; K. Chaldean guarding the egg; L. the Keeper spirit; M. Babylonian woman; N. offers to the wrathful God; O. animal charms; P. Medean/Persian prophecy; Q. Cneph; R. Isis.

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MYTHOLOGY-ROMAN-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 24 shows Phoenician and Roman Gods. This plate shows A. Saturn; B. Rhea; C. Jupiter; D. Juno; E. Mercury; F. symbol of Mercury; G. Sleep; H. Minerva; I. fertility symbols; L. Proserpina; M. Ceres; N. Triptolemus; O. a fertility symbol; P. Venus Basilissa; Q. Vulcan.

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MYTHOLOGY-GREEK-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 25 shows Greek Gods. This plate shows A. Diana of the Ephesians; B. Sirena; C. Atys; D. Agdiste; E. Eclips; F. nymph Ajoja; G. Achaean Jupiter; H. Jupiter Homoreus; I. a smybol of the sun; K. millstones topped by Ceres’ head; L. Grane; M. Janus; N. Hebe; O. Memory; P. Song; R. meditation; S. Saturn;

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MYTHOLOGY-ROMAN-GREEK-HYROGLYPHIC-SYMBOL-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 26 shows Greek and Roman Gods. This plate shows A. Venus; B. Pitho; C. Chastity (swans); D. Cupid; E. Anteros; F. Hymanaeus; G. heavenly Cupid; H. Bacchus; I. Menaed; K. Connis; L. Menaed; M. Homoritus; N. Mars; O. Mars’ fame; P. victory lance; Q. military staff; R. reward; S. destruction and devastation; T. fear/cowardice; V. flatterers; W. Apollo; X. Pierus; Y. the Muses; Z. Marsyas.

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MYTHOLOGY-GREEK-PUNISHMENT-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 27 shows Greek Gods of punishment. This plate shows A. Jupiter Horcius; B. Vejov; C. Deus Fidius; D. vigilance (symbol: a golden goose); E. desertion; F. fortune; G. Hercules; H. unpredictable luck; I. Wisdom; K. Nemesis; L. Fortuna Augusta; M. Veta; N. Mars; O. Aesculapius; P. Diana Lucina; Q. Diana (in another form); R. Pantheon.

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MYTHOLOGY-ICONOLOGY-EVIL-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 28 shows evil Gods. This plate shows A. Herimis; B. Joosje Tidebaic; C. dragon; D. Abaddon; E. Temptation in the Garden of Eden; F. treasure keeper; G. treasure guard; H. goblins; I. pagan dance; K. De Witte Vrouw (the White Lady); L. Larunda; M. Harpies; N. Wrath of the harpies; O. Nightmare; P. Earthquake; Q. Scylla; R. Charybdis; S. Syrtes.

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MYTHOLOGY-ICONOLOGY-CHARON-TYPHO-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 29 shows evil Gods. This plate shows A. Aspis; B. Otau; C. Zameluk; D. Typho; E. a statue symbolizing a bad year; F-H. Furies; I. Charon; K. Stygian might; L. Furrina; M. Chimaera; N. Cerberus; O. Maniae; P. Sphynxes; Q. obelisk; R. Semiramis; S. Jutrebok.

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ICONOLOGY-CABALLA-PAGANISM-SCIENCE-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 30 symbolises the threats to the Word of God. This plate shows A. The Word of God (personified); B. Caballa; C. Paganism; D. bestial humanity; E. Poetry; F. Science/Natural religion; G. Scientist.

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CONOLOGY-JUDAICA-JEWS-TALMUD-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 31 shows the Jews in Christ’s time. This plate shows A. Mazora; B. Talmud; C. Sanhedrin; D. Av beit din; E. Nasi; F. Jewish executioner.

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ICONOLOGY-JESUS-CHRIST-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 32 shows Christ. This plate shows A. The Church of God offered to Christ; B. Jesus Christ; C. The celebration of the suffering of Christ by the church of God; D. Ancient rule broken; E. receiving the Gospel; F. a gate into the Church of God.

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ICONOLOGY-APOSTLES-MARTYRS-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 33 symbolises the Original or First Church. This plate shows A. the Congregation of Christ’s elect; B. Christian martyrdom; C. the discord of the Church; D. the hermit’s life; E. the Apostles.

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ICONOLOGY-PAGAN-ORACLE-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 34 shows pagan oracle. This plate shows A. Delphic oracle; B. oracle priest; C. Scythian priestess; D. Dodona; E. Apis; F. Roman racetrack (where oracles gathered); G. charlatan; H. spire of Petosiris.

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ICONOLOGY-GOD’s TRUTH-PEACE-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 35 shows the peace of god’s church. This plate shows A. the Peace of God’s Church (true Salem); B. Sister Truth; C. Antichrist; D-E. Pagan precursors; F. man trumpeting God’s Word; G. penman writing God’s Word; H. an old wise man, symbolizing the Prophets.

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Antique Print-COUNCIL-CREED-ICONOLOGY-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 36 symbolises the foundation of religious beliefs. This plate shows: A. the ensign of Christianity; B. the 12 articles of the creed; C. trampling the old beliefs; D. Paganism; E. Councils; F. Nicene Creed; G. Creed of Constantinople; H. Ephesian Creed; I. Chalcedonies Creed; K. Satan; L. Perplexed uncertainty; M. Spiritual robbery; N. Tartuf.

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CABALLA-THEOLOGY-ICONOLOGY-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 37 symbolises theological truth and her enemies.

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ICONOLOGY-CHRISTIANITY-HERESY-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 38 symbolises the decay of truth. This plate shows the sinful church surrounded by pomp and heretics, and clerical bloatedness. However, central in the plate (behind the figure of the sinful church) is the palm tree that symbolises trust in God. On this palm tree the original Church rests, beside which the power of miracles is symbolised. The background of the plate shows a mutability motif (the fallen Colossus of Nebuchadnezzar). Animal imagery is used (sheep vs. wolves and foxes) to strengthen the image.

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ICONOLOGY-BAPTIST-QUAKER-JESUIT-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735

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ICONOLOGY-CHURCH RULE-CHRISTIAN-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 40 symbolizes church government. This plate shows: A. a relic of the apostle Thomas; B. baptism; C. shaving and anointed the acolyte; D. a bishop; E. pomp and mummery invades the church; F. theosophistry; G. Saint Bridget (mysticism); H. tradition; I. the markest stall of golden legends; K. the Gospel of the Holy Ghost by Abt Joachim; L. the division of the church.

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ICONOLOGY-RELIGIOUS ORDERS-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 41 symbolises the rise of orders in Roman Catholicism. This plate shows: A. Saint Anthony; B. prayer; C. meditation; D. reading; E. waking; F. writing; G. frank confession; H. the Holy Church; I-M. levels of devotion to religious life; N. Dominican; O. Jesuit.

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ICONOLOGY-DIVISION OF CHURCH-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 42 shows discord in the church. This plate shows: A. the discord is shown by two rams locking horns; B. the First Church of Christ; C. Roman Catholicism; D. Greek Orthodox church; E. idolatry; F. Latria; G. Hyperdulia; H. Dulia; I. breaking the idols; K. iconoclasm; L. a decadent priest; M. fasting; N. purgatory.

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POPE-CAVALCADE-ROMAN CATHOLIC-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 43 shows the rise of Roman Catholics to Papal might. This plate shows a personification of the Papal power over the world, amidst the trappings of that office.

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CATHOLICISM-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 44 shows the division of the Christian church. This plate shows: A. the apostle; B. the evangelist; C. presbyter; D. deacon; E. religious gathering; F. growing pride; G. division of the Christian realm; H. the head of the religious state; I. trampling heresy; K. trampling the heart of the murdered confessor; L-M. ancient Roman images of spiritual mastery.

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MARONITE-KOPTIC-ARMENIAN-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 45 shows the division of the Christian church. This plate shows various of the more exotic branches of the Christian religion; among others: Koptic, Armenian, Maronite.

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-ICONOLOGY-ISLAM-MOHAMMEDISM-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 46 shows the principles of the Islam. This plate shows: A. a soldierly personification of the religion; B. Saracen Islam; C. Persian Mohammedism; D. various Mohammedan creeds; E. the Crusader.

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ICONOLOGY-ISLAM-MOHAMMEDISM-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 47 shows the symbolism of the Islam. This plate shows: A. personification of the Islam; B. heathen priesthood; C. the tub for purification; D. Alborac; E. the three faces of hypocrisy; F. the Greek church; G. a blind old man; H. temptation; I. the old snake, mankind’s archenemy; K. deception; L. repentenance.

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CRUSADE-ORDERS-ST. JOHN-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 48 shows the symbolism of the crusaders and related orders. This plate shows: A-C. the crusader’s virtues: poverty, humble obedience & chastity; D. Order of St. John; E. Marianer order; F. Calatrava; G. St. Jacob of Compostella; H. the knights of Genet; I. the knights of the Star; K. Annunciada; L. Order of St. Louis; M. Frisians and Batavi; N. Holy zeal.

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INDULGENCE-INQUISITION-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 49 symbolises the financial base of Papal powe. This plate shows: A. the Might of Rome; B. tithes; C. indulgence; D. dispensation; E. Inquisition; F. salvation from purgatory.

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ROMAN CATHOLIC-COUNCIL-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 50 shows the symbolism of councils and traditions. This allegorical plate shows the various forms of religious councils in the Roman Catholic church.

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BAN-JUDAS-CAIN-JEWISH-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 51 shows the symbolism the churches bans. This plate shows A. Jewish ban; B. Roman ban; C. Papal ban; D. Azazel; E. Church ban of the ancient Greeks and Asians; F. repentance of the exile; G. true remorse; H. Cain; I. Judas.

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ICONOLOGY-SEVEN SACRAMENTS-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 52 shows the symbolism of the seven sacraments. This plate shows A. Baptism; B. Confirmation; C. Holy Eucharist; D. Penance/confession; E. Anointment; F. Holy Orders; G. Holy Matrimony.

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ICONOLOGY-ZEAL-CHERUB-SYMBOL-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 53 is entitled “Wrongful zeal”. This plate shows A. fasting; B. excess works; C. a “klop-zuster”; D. guard duty; E. requiem mass; F. the Lord’s Supper; G. an old sinner; H. Purgatory; I. Cherub; K. a year-old child (signifying the yearly changing breviary); L. worship of pagan emperors; M. the triumph of the saints.

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ICONOLOGY-CATHOLIC SAINTS-SYMBOL-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 54 shows Roman Catholic Saints. This plate shows A. Saint Christopher; B. God (in Popal attire); C. Christ; D. the four evangelists; E. angels Raphael and Gabriel; F. Maria; G. martyrs; H. Sainted Cardinals (Borromei, Aquaviva); I. relics; K. Saint Anthony; L. a Dragon; M. a virgin; N. Saint George; O. Saint Hubertus; P. Saint Doinys; Q. Saint Nicolas; R. Boniface; S. Ambrosius; T. Longinus; V. saintly tradesmen (S. Aarnoud, S. Crispyn, S. Lucas, etc.); W. Sainted Kings and Emperors; X. St. Getrude of Nivelles and St. Ursula.

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ICONOLOGY-HOLIDAYS-CHRISTMAS-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 55 shows Roman Catholic Holidays. This plate shows A. jubilee; B. ember days; C. Sunday; D. Christmas; E. epiphania/theophania; F. annunciation; G. Holy Sacrament; H. All Hallows; I. Exaltation of the Holy Cross; K. thousand year jubilee.

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ICONOLOGY-REFORMATION-SCHISM-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 56 symbolises the impending Reformation. This intricate plate is an allegory of the various causes of the schism in Western Christianity.

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ICONOLOGY-REFORMATION-HERCULES-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 57 shows the symbols of the True Doctrine. This plate shows, among others, Acheron, Reformation, Divine Grace, Hercules.

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ICONOLOGY-REFORMATION-SEVEN AGES-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 58 shows the symbols of the Seven Ages. This plate shows: A. the age of preaching; B. the age of prosecution; C. the age of worldly exaltation; D. Spiritual Babel; E. Reformation; F. the clearer Light of the Reformation; G. the perfection of the the Church of Christ.

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ICONOLOGY-REFORMATION-LUTHER-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 59 shows the symbolism of the Reformation. This plate, an intricate allegory, shows various figures and symbols around the public declaration by Luther.

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ICONOLOGY-BAPTIST-QUAKER-JESUIT-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 60 shows the symbolism of apostate reform. This plate shows: A. an chic old man dressed as a seer; B. man and woman immersed (criticising the use of the innocence of the Golden Age as an excuse for sinful living); C. Baptists; D. Quakers; E. Lelio Sozzini; F. Jansenists; G. Jesuits; H. Preadamists; I. Schism.

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ICONOLOGY-COCCEIUS-VOETIUS-SYNOD-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 61 symbolises reformed religion. This plate shows: A. Reformed Religion; B. the preaching office; C. presbyterianism; D. diaconate; E. discarded idols; F. national synod; G. political commissioner; H. Voetius; I. Cocceius.

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ICONOLOGY-HEAVEN-DIOGENES-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 62 shows the symbolism of the True Heaven. This intricate allegorical plate shows the symbols of the false and true Heaven – ranging from Poet’s Heaven to Muslim heaven.

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ICONOLOGY-SYMBOLISM-TRUE FAITH-HYROGLYPHIC-Romeyn de Hooghe-1735 Plate 63 is titled Toepassing (application). This plate shows the opposition of the False Creeds versus the True Faith. On this print the last judgement is depicted, and astrological, mythical and religious figures.